Chinese Immigration Act (Canada) (1885)

Incorporating recommendations from the Royal Commission on Chinese Immigration (1884–85), the Chinese Immigration Act was the first Canadian legislation to formally limit immigration based on race.

Chinese Exclusion Act (United States) (1882)

The Chinese Exclusion Act was the first measure to specifically exclude an ethnic group from immigrating to the United States.

Carriage of Passengers Act (United States) (1855)

The rapid influx of Irish, German, and Chinese immigrants into the United States after 1845 was accompanied by a series of steamship disasters and the prevalence of cholera, typhus, and smallpox among arriving immigrants.

Bill C-86 (Canada) (1992)

One of the earliest measures designed to deal with the threat of terrorism, Bill C-86 was introduced in the House of Commons on June 16, 1992, as an alteration to the Immigration Act of 1976.

Bill C-55 (Canada) (1989)

With the Canadian Supreme Court’s decision in Singh v. Minister of Employment and Immigration (1985) that oral hearings were required in every case for the determination of refugee status, there was an immediate need to restructure the hearing process.

Alien Land Act (United States) (1913)

Passed by the California legislature in 1913, the Alien Land Act prohibited noncitizens from owning land in California.

Alien Labor Act (Canada) (1897)

Designed to support the Canadian policy of preferring agriculturalists to all other immigrants, this measure made it illegal to contract and import foreign laborers.

Alien Contract Labor Act (Foran Act) (United States) (1885)

Reflecting a growing concern about the effects of organized labor, Congress enacted the Alien Contract Labor Act, also known as the Foran Act, on February 26, 1885.

Alien and Sedition Acts (United States) (1798)

The Alien and Sedition Acts is the collective name given to four laws enacted by the U.S. Congress in the midst of its undeclared naval war with France known as the Quasi War (1798–1800).