Slavery is the condition of a person being owned by someone else, forced to work, and without personal freedoms.

Padrone system

A padrone (from the Italian padroni for “patrons” or “bosses”) was a middleman in the labor trade, helping poor immigrants obtain transportation to North America, jobs upon arrival, and basic needs in an alien society.

Molly Maguires

The Molly Maguires was a secret Irish Catholic society, originally bent on terrorizing English mine and landowners in the name of labor justice.

Mine War

A decade-long tension between management and labor erupted in two weeks of open warfare in the Illinois, Ohio, and Indiana coalfields during June 1894.

Labor organization and immigration

From the colonial period, immigrants were viewed as a potential threat to the interests of workers already in North America.

Industrial Workers of the World (IWW, Wobblies)

Founded in 1905, the Industrial Workers of the World (IWW) was the most important of the radical labor organizations that operated in the United States and Canada.

Samuel Gompers (1850–1924) labor leader

Samuel Gompers was the most influential early labor leader in the United States. The son of Jewish parents who had emigrated from Holland to England in 1844, he and his family immigrated to New York City in 1863.

American Federation of Labor and Congress of Industrial Organizations (AFL-CIO)

The AFL-CIO is the largest labor organization in the United States, comprising some 66 self-governing national and international labor unions with a total membership of 13 million workers (2002).