Immigration Act (Canada) (1919)
Under Section 3 of the new Immigration Act, an orderin- council excluded entry of emigrants from countries that had fought against Canada during the war. The list of inadmissible immigrants was also expanded to include alcoholics, those of “psychopathic inferiority,” mental “defectives,” illiterates, those guilty of espionage, and those who believed in the forcible overthrow of the government or who “disbelieved” in government at all. At the same time, revisions made it easier to deport immigrants. If it could be shown that an immigrant fell into an inadmissible class upon arrival in Canada, he or she was no longer safe from deportation after five years. Furthermore, the cabinet was authorized to prohibit entry to members of any race, class, or nationality because of contemporary economic conditions or because they were not likely to be assimilable because of “peculiar habits, modes of life and methods of holding property,” a provision invoked against the entry of Hutterites (see Hutterite immigration), Mennonites (see Mennonite immigration), and Doukhobors. Additionally, in 1921, adult immigrants were required to have $250 upon landing, and children, $125. Farm laborers and domestic workers with previous job arrangements were exempted from the landing fees. In 1923, immigration was restricted to agriculturalists, farm laborers, and domestic servants only.